Cellulite, un’adiposopatia?


Dermakos 2016; 1: 44-49


  1. Kissebah AH, Krakower GR. Regional adiposity and morbidity. Physiol Rev 1994; 74: 761-811.
  2. Duvnjak L, Duvnjak M. The metabolic syndrome – an ongoing story. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009 ;60 Suppl 7:19-24.
  3. Tracy RP. Is visceral adiposity the “enemy within”? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001; 21: 881-3.
  4. Reaven GM. Banting lecture 1988. Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes 1988; 37(12): 1595-607.
  5. Hajer GR, van Haeften TW, Visseren FL. Adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity, diabetes, and vascular diseases. Eur Heart J. 2008; 29(24): 2959-71.
  6. Han JM, Levings MK. Immune regulation in obesity-associated adipose inflammation. J Immunol. 2013; 191(2): 527-32.
  7. Pasarica M, et al. Reduced adipose tissue oxygenation in human obesity: evidence for rarefaction, macrophage chemotaxis, and inflammation without an angiogenic response. Diabetes. 2009; 58(3): 718-25.
  8. Netzer N, Gatterer H, Faulhaber M, et al. Hypoxia, oxidative stress and fat. Biomolecules. 2015; 5(2): 1143-50.
  9. Trayhurn P. Hypoxia and adipose tissue function and dysfunction in obesity. Physiol Rev. 2013 ;93(1):1-21.
  10. Koeppen M, Eckle T, Eltzschig HK. The hypoxia-inflammation link and potential drug targets. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2011; 24(4): 363-9.
  11. Andraws R, Brown DL. Effect of inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system on development of type 2 diabetes mellitus meta-analysis of randomized trials). Am J Cardiol 2007; 99: 1006-1012.
  12. Ye J, Gao Z, Yin J, He H. Hypoxia is a potential risk factor for chronic inflammation and adiponectin reduction in adipose tissue of ob/ob and dietary obese mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2007; 293: E1118–E1128.
  13. Surmi BK, Hasty AH. Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue: initiation, propagation and remodeling. Future Lipidol. 2008; 3(5): 545-556.
  14. Sun K et al. Fibrosis and adipose tissue dysfunction. Cell Metab. 2013; 18(4): 470-7.
  15. Sun K et al. Adipose tissue remodeling and obesity. J Clin Invest. 2011; 121(6): 2094-101.
  16. Mariman EC, Wang P. Adipocyte extracellular matrix composition, dynamics and role in obesity. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010; 67(8): 1277-92.
  17. Chun TH. Peri-adipocyte ECM remodeling in obesity and adipose tissue fibrosis. Adipocyte 2012; 1(2): 89-95.
  18. Halberg Net al. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha induces fibrosis and insulin resistance in white adipose tissue. Mol Cell Biol. 2009; 29(16): 4467-83.
  19. Pasarica M et al. Adipose tissue collagen VI in obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009; 94(12): 5155-62.
  20. Fain JN. Release of inflammatory mediators by human adipose tissue is enhanced in obesity and primarily by the nonfat cells: a review. Mediators Inflamm. 2010; 2010: 513948.
  21. Vachharajani V, Granger DN. Adipose tissue: a motor for the inflammation associated with obesity. IUBMB Life. 2009 ; 61(4): 424-30.
  22. Unger RH. Minireview: weapons of lean body mass destruction: the role of ectopic lipids in the metabolic syndrome. Endocrinology 2003; 144(12): 5159-6.5
  23. Capeau J. Insulin resistance and steatosis in humans. Diabetes Metab 2008; 34(6 Pt 2): 649-57.
  24. Suganami Tet al. Adipose tissue inflammation and ectopic lipid accumulation. Endocr J 2012; 59(10): 849-57.
  25. Kaur J. A comprehensive review on metabolic syndrome. Cardiol Res Pract. 2014: 943162
  26. Klöting N, Blüher M. Adipocyte dysfunction, inflammation and metabolic syndrome. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2014; 15(4): 277-87.
  27. Halberg N, Wernstedt-Asterholm I, Scherer PE. The adipocyte as an endocrine cell. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2008; 37(3): 753-68.
  28. Rabe K, Lehrke M, Parhofer KG, Broedl UC. Adipokines and insulin resistance. Mol Med. 2008; 14(11-12): 741-51.
  29. Andrade-Oliveira V, Câmara NO, Moraes-Vieira PM. Adipokines as drug targets in diabetes and underlying disturbances. J Diabetes Res. 2015; 2015:681612.
  30. Curri SB, Ryan TJ. Panniculopathy and fibrosclerosis of the female breast and thigh. Clin Dermatol 1989; 7(4): 107-19.
  31. Nürnberger F, Müller G. So-called cellulite: an invented disease. Journal of Dermatologic Surgery and Oncology 1978; 4(3): 221-9
  32. Scherwitz C, Braun-Falco O. So-called cellulite. Journal of Dermatologic Surgery and Oncology 1978; 4(3): 230-34.
  33. Rosenbaum M, Prieto V, Hellmer J, et al. An exploratory investigation of the morphology and biochemistry of cellulite. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1998; 101(7): 1934-9.
  34. Callaghan T,Wilhelm KP. An examination of non-invasive imaging techniques in the analysis and review of cellulite. J Cosmetic Sci 2005; 56(3): 379-393.
  35. Khan MH, Victor F, Rao B, Sadick NS. Treatment of cellulite: Part I. Pathophysiology. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010 ; 62(3): 361-70.
  36. de la Casa Almeida M et al .Cellulite’s aetiology: a review. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2013;27(3):273-8
  37. Pierard GE, Nizet JL, Pierard-Franchimont C. Cellulite: from standing fat herniation to hypodermal stretch marks. Am J Dermatopathol. 2000; 22(1): 34-7.
  38. Quatresooz P, Xhauflaire-Uhoda E, Piérard-Franchimont C, Piérard GE. Cellulite histopathology and related mechano-biology. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2006; 28(3): 207-10.
  39. Pierard GE. Commentary on cellulite: skin mechanobiology and the waist-to-hip ratio. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2005; 4(3): 151-2.
  40. Draelos ZD, Marenus KD. Cellulite. Etiology and purported treatment. Dermatol Surg. 1997; 23(12): 1177-81.
  41. Pugliese PT. The pathogenesis of cellulite: a new concept. J Cosmet Dermatol 2007; 6(2): 140-2.
  42. Binazzi M, Papini M. Aspetti clinico-istomorfologici. in: Ribuffo A. e Bartoletti C.A. (Eds), ‘La Cellulite’, Salus Internaz Ed, Roma 1983, pp. 7-15.
  43. Ryan TJ, Curri SB. The development of adipose tissue and its relationship to the vascular system. Clin Dermatol. 1989; 7(4): 1-8.
  44. Merlen DF, Curri SB. Rapporti microvascolo-tessutali. in: Ribuffo A. e Bartoletti C.A. (Eds), ‘La Cellulite’, Salus Internaz Ed, Roma 1983, pp.37-46.
  45. Merlen JF, Curri SB, Sarteel AM. Cellulitis, a conjunctive microvascular disease. Phlebologie. 1979;32(3):279-82
  46. Merlen JF, Curri SB. Anatomico-pathological causes of cellulite. J Mal Vasc 1984; 9 Suppl A: 53-4.
  47. Curri SB. Aspetti biochimici. In: Ribuffo A, Bartoletti CA. (Eds), La Cellulite, Salus Internaz Ed, Roma 1983, 29-36.
  48. Curri SB. Linfedema e liposclerosi: una questione nosologica. La Med. Est. 1984; 8: 9-33.
  49. Curri SB. Orientamenti recenti sul trattamento della liposclerosi (cosiddetta cellulite). In: Bartoletti CA, Gualtierotti A. (Eds), Obesità, Cellulite e Medicina Estetica, Salus Internaz Ed, Roma 1986, pp. 79-87.
  50. Curri S B. Compendio di semeiotica clinica e strumentale della pannicolopatia. 1993 Edra E, Milano.
  51. Rossi AB, Vergnanini AL. Cellulite: a review. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2000 ;14(4):251-62
  52. Omi T, Sato S, Kawana S. Ultrastructural assessment of cellulite morphology: clues to a therapeutic strategy? Laser Ther. 2013; 22(2): 131-6.
  53. Querleux B et al. Anatomy and physiology of subcutaneous adipose tissue by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy: relationships with sex and presence of Cellulite. Skin Res Technol. 2002; 8(2):118-24.
  54. Querleux B. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of skin and subcutis. J Cosmet Dermatol 2004; 3(3):156-61.
  55. Querleux B. Cellulite characterization by high frequency ultrasound and high-resolution magnetic reconance imaging. In: Goldman MP, et al Edit. Cellulite, pathophysiology and treatment. Taylor & Francis, NY 2006.
  56. Mirrashed F, Sharp JC, Krause V, et al. Pilot study of dermal and subcutaneous fat structures by MRI in individuals who differ in gender, BMI, and cellulite grading. Skin Res Technol. 2004; 10(3): 161-8.
  57. Panettiere P, Accorsi D, Marchetti L, et al. The trochanteric fat pad. Eur J Histochem. 2011; 55(2): e16.
  58. Avram MM, Avram AS, James WD. Subcutaneous fat in normal and diseased states: 1. Introduction. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005; 53(4): 663-70.
  59. Avram AS, Avram MM, James WD. Subcutaneous fat in normal and diseased states: 2. Anatomy and physiology of white and brown adipose tissue. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005; 53(4) :671-83.
  60. Cook A, Cowan C. Adipose. 2009 31. StemBook [Internet]. Cambridge (MA): Harvard Stem Cell Institute; 2008-. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=stembook&part=adipose
  61. Khan MH, Victor F, Rao B, Sadick NS. Treatment of cellulite: Part I. Pathophysiology. J Am Acad Dermatol 2010 ; 62(3): 361-70.
  62. de la Casa Almeida M et al .Cellulite’s aetiology: a review. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2013; 27(3): 273-8.
  63. Terranova F, Berardesca E, Maibach H. Cellulite: nature and aetiopathogenesis. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2006; 28(3): 157-67.
  64. Draelos ZD. Cellulite Pathophysiology. : Goldman MP, et al Edit. Cellulite, pathophysiology and treatment. Taylor & Francis, NY 2006.
  65. Halberg N, et al. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha induces fibrosis and insulin resistance in white adipose tissue. Mol Cell Biol. 2009; 29(16): 4467-83.
  66. Patel P, Abate N. Body fat distribution and insulin resistance. Nutrients 2013; 5(6) :2019-27.
  67. Patel P, Abate N. Role of subcutaneous adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. J Obes. 2013; 2013:489187.
  68. Lê KAet al. Subcutaneous adipose tissue macrophage infiltration is associated with hepatic and visceral fat deposition, hyperinsulinemia, and stimulation of NF-κB stress pathway. Diabetes. 2011; 60(11): 2802-9.
  69. Amati F. et al. Lower thigh subcutaneous and higher visceral abdominal adipose tissue content both contribute to insulin resistance. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012; 20(5): 1115-7.
  70. Vargas G, Chandalia M, Jiang Y, Davila H, Motamedi M, Abate N. Heterogeneityin subcutaneous adipose tissue morphology and metabolic complications in overweight and obese women. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2013; 11(4): 276-82.
  71. Evans J. et al. Depot- and ethnic-specific differences in the relationship between adipose tissue inflammation and insulin sensitivity. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2011; 74(1): 51-9.
  72. Tchoukalova YD, Koutsari C, Votruba SB, et al. Sex- and depot-dependent differences in adipogenesis in normal-weight humans. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010; 18(10): 1875-80.
  73. Huang ZH, Manickam B, Ryvkin V, et al. PCOS is associated with increased CD11c expression and crown-like structures in adipose tissue and increased central abdominal fat depots independent of obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 98(1): E17-24.
  74. You T et al. Regional adipose tissue hormone/cytokine production before and after weight loss in abdominally obese women. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014;22(7):1679-84
  75. Mališová L. et al. Expression of inflammation-related genes in gluteal and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue during weight-reducing dietary intervention in obese women. Physiol Res. 2014; 63(1): 73-82.
  76. Cohen P. et al. Ablation of PRDM16 and beige adipose causes metabolic dysfunction and a subcutaneous to visceral fat switch. Cell. 2014 16; 156(1-2): 304-16.
  77. Emanuele E, Bertona M, Geroldi D. A multilocus candidate approach identifies ACE and HIF1A as susceptibility genes for cellulite. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010; 24(8): 930-5.
  78. Emanuele E. Toward a molecular understanding of cellulite: facts, controversies, and future directions. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011; 64(2): 439.
  79. Emanuele E. Cellulite: advances in treatment: facts and controversies. Clin Dermatol. 2013; 31(6): 725-30.
  80. Emanuele E, Minoretti P, Altabas K, Gaeta E, Altabas V. Adiponectin expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue is reduced in women with cellulite. Int J Dermatol. 2011; 50(4): 412-6.
  81. Stavroulaki A, Pramantiotis G. Cellulite, smoking and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion polymorphism. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2011; 25(9): 1116-7.